Swift: Structures and Classes


Swift is a powerful language that provides developers with an efficient and concise way to write code. It’s gaining in popularity in recent years, and for good reason. Swift is powerful, yet easy to use. In this article, we will take a look at the structures and classes in Swift. By understanding these concepts, you will be able to write more code with less effort.

What is Swift?

Swift is a new programming language created by Apple Inc. It was announced on August 10, 2014 at the Worldwide Developers Conference and released to the public on December 3, 2014. The design of the Swift is intuitive, efficient and expressive. It has a type system that is more flexible and powerful than Objective-C, and it has support for Evolution Data Server (EDS).

How Swift Works?

Swift is a new programming language designed by Apple Inc. Swift was announced on June 5, 2014, and is presently in beta form. It is a modular, object-oriented language with distinct features that differentiate it from other languages, including type inference grammars and automatic memory management.

Swift operates on the principle of “concurrency via dispatch.” This implies that code can run in parallel without requiring a separate thread or process. The operating system manages thread management, freeing the programmer from this task and ensuring the correct functioning of their code.

The Swift compiler takes as input a Standard ML program written in Swift and produces an executable binary file that runs on both iOS and MacOS systems.

Types of Structures in Swift

In this article, we will discuss the different types of structures in Swift. Structures are a powerful tool for encapsulating data and making it easy to use.

There are three types of structures in Swift: primitive, class, and enumeration. Primitive structures are just what their name suggests-primitive data types like integers, floating point numbers, and booleans. Class structures are Cocoa classes with a structure property set to true. Enumeration structures are similar to class structures, but they can only hold values that are classified as integers ( uint ), floats ( float ), or Booleans ( bool ).

Structures play an important role in Swift programming. They make it easy to group related pieces of code together, and you can use them to store data abstractly. Structures also allow you to create reusable code blocks, which can save you time and money.

Classes in Swift

In this article, we will discuss the basics of structures and classes in Swift. We will start with a brief introduction to these concepts, and then move on to discussing the different types of structures and classes. Finally, we will provide some tips on how to use them effectively.


A structure is a data type that defines a collection of variables and their corresponding values. You can define structures using the var keyword, like this:

var flag = 1 // Flag variable is set to 1

Or they can be defined using the let keyword, like this:

let person = { name: “John”, age: 32 } // Person variable is set to { name: “John”, age: 32 }

Unlike constants, you can also define structures at runtime. This allows you to store temporary data in a struct while your program is running. For example, you might want to store the user’s current location in a struct called location while your application is running. You could do this like this:

struct location { var latitude: Double, longitude: Double } let location = { latitude: 37.789500, longitude:-122.395000 }

lat : Double , lon : Double } as Location ) let location = Location (latitude: 37.789500 , longitude:-


What are Structures and Classes in Swift?

Structures and classes are both used to define custom data types in Swift. They encapsulate data and behavior associated with a particular entity. While structures are value types, meaning they are copied when assigned or passed, classes are reference types, meaning they are passed by reference.

What are the key differences between Structures and Classes?

The main differences between structures and classes in Swift are:

  • Structures are value types, and classes are reference types.
  • Structures have member-wise initializers automatically generated by Swift, while classes do not.
  • Structures cannot inherit from other structures, but classes can inherit from other classes.
  • Structures are typically used for simpler data types, while classes are used for more complex objects with identity and inheritance needs.

When should I use a Structure in Swift?

You should use structures when you need a simple data type that is passed by value, such as basic data types (like integers or strings), or when you want to encapsulate a few relatively simple data values. Structures are also preferred for immutability and when copying behavior is desired.

When should I use a Class in Swift?

Classes are more suitable when you need reference semantics, inheritance, or identity tracking. Use classes when you want to create complex objects with shared behavior and when you need to pass them around by reference rather than copying.

How do I define a Structure in Swift?

You can define a structure using the struct keyword followed by the structure’s name and its properties and methods. For example:

struct Person {

var name: String

var age: Int


How do I define a Class in Swift?

You can define a class using the class keyword followed by the class’s name and its properties and methods. For example:

class Person {

var name: String

var age: Int


init(name: String, age: Int) {

self.name = name

self.age = age



What are some common use cases for Structures and Classes in Swift?

  • Use structures for modeling simple data types like geometric shapes, points, or sizes.
  • Use classes for modeling more complex objects with behaviors and states, such as user interfaces, network requests, or data models that require inheritance and identity tracking.
  • Choose structures when you need value semantics or when dealing with immutability, and classes when you need reference semantics or when you need to manage shared mutable state.


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